Of particular importance are depression in alcohol abusers. Alcohol depression is a fairly common mental disorder that occurs in alcohol abusers. At the same time, the assignment of alcoholic depression and dipsomania to meta-alcoholic psychosis has always been controversial. In contrast to dipsomania, depression may depend on the duration and severity of chronic alcohol intoxication. The average duration of alcohol depression is from 2 weeks to 1 month. The duration of depression is influenced by the personality characteristics of patients and their constitutional features.
A typical alcoholic depression (alcoholic melancholy) is characterized by a state of low mood, which occurs autochthonously or reactively (psychogenically). Affective disorder is especially noticeable during withdrawal symptoms. At the same time, it is known that alcohol depression can manifest itself after leaving alcoholic psychosis. The manifestations of dysphoria, tearfulness, anxiety, and hypochondriacal symptoms are most often referred to as psychopathological formations associated with alcohol depression.
Women are more susceptible to alcohol depression than men, but the latter are more prone to suicide while intoxicated than the first. In addition, men usually do not seek medical help due to alcohol depression.
The initial presence of emotional and personal characteristics leads to the use of alcohol and the subsequent formation of mood disorders that contribute to alcoholism.
From the point of view of supporters of psychoanalysis, the use of alcohol against a background of low mood can increase the manifestations of depression – and, due to the weakening of the “ego control”, lead to suicide attempts.
Recurrent depression, despite the generally accepted point of view, is rarely the cause of alcoholism, often the hypomania state (especially when it comes to the abuse of narcotic drugs) or cyclothymia contributes to the onset of this disease.
Depression and personality disorder
Personality disorder in adulthood is a fertile ground for the onset of depressive reactions, phase mood swings and the formation of depressive episodes. As you know, the borders in “minor psychiatry”, in the sphere of attention of which neurotic and personality disorders fall, do not divide, but unite mental disorders, and it is quite difficult to separate personality disorder from neurotic disorders. In the presence of personality disorders, emotional reactions are disproportionate to the events taking place, there is an increased emotional expressiveness.
Relatively often, depression develops in people with a dependent personality type who are inclined to support others and attachment to them.
Eating Disorder and Depression
Disorders of food cravings and behavior (bulimia and anorexia) usually occur in adolescent girls, girls, and young women. With a long-lasting loss of appetite, depression can occur in 70% of cases (it is assumed that one of the causes of depression is poor nutrition). Both during eating disorders and during a depressive episode, almost identical hormonal and neurobiological changes are observed.
Bulimia and anorexia (there is a point of view that these syndromes are stages of the course of one disease) usually manifest by weight loss, increased appetite or, on the contrary, its absence during anorexia, causing vomiting to alleviate the condition after eating.
In case of persistent eating disorder, hormonal disorders can occur, including the absence of menstruation. The characteristic guilt feelings for eating disorders suggests the presence of depression in this disease. In addition, it turned out that some antidepressants (fluoxitin) can be quite effective in its treatment. There is a point of view according to which depression is hidden under the mask of bulimia (anorexia).